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NASA 허블은 지구에서 가까운 블랙홀을 찾고 있습니다.

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Deungjeong Kyungsoon
Deungjeong Kyungsoon
"경순은 통찰력 있고 사악한 사상가로, 다양한 음악 장르에 깊은 지식을 가지고 있습니다. 힙스터 문화와 자연스럽게 어우러지는 그의 스타일은 독특합니다. 그는 베이컨을 좋아하며, 인터넷 세계에서도 활발한 활동을 보여줍니다. 그의 내성적인 성격은 그의 글에서도 잘 드러납니다."

구상성단 M4의 허블 우주 망원경 이미지. 이 성단은 수십만 개의 별이 밀집된 집합체입니다. 천문학자들은 우리 태양 질량의 800배에 달하는 중간질량 블랙홀이 그 중심부에 보이지 않게 숨어 있다고 믿고 있습니다. 크레딧: ESA/Hubble, NASA, Eduardo Vitral(STScI)

반짝이는 별섬 중앙에 어두운 중앙 클러스터가 숨어 있습니다.

우주의 중력 함정인 블랙홀은 크기가 다양합니다. 또는 더 정확하게는 서로 다른 블록입니다. 모두 매우 작기 때문입니다. 첫번째[{” attribute=””>black hole ever discovered, in 1971, weighed in at 21 times our Sun’s mass. It was formed by the explosion and collapse of a star. Examples of a completely different class of black hole were identified in the 1960s-1970s. They weighed in at millions to billions of times our Sun’s mass. Like all supermassive black holes, those monsters dwell in the center of major galaxies.

So, black holes can be super-big or super-small. The missing link is an intermediate-mass black hole, weighing roughly 100 to 1,000 times our Sun’s mass. A handful have been found in other galaxies. Perhaps they are on the road to growing into supermassive black holes.

The cores of globular star clusters are hunting grounds for intermediate-mass black holes. They are smaller than galaxies and should have correspondingly smaller black holes. Over 150 of these snow-globe-shaped collections of hundreds of thousands of stars orbit our Milky Way galaxy, like artificial satellites whirling around Earth. Searches for intermediate-mass back holes in these clusters have been elusive. The suspected central black hole can’t be directly observed, of course. Astronomers gather circumstantial evidence by watching stars swarming around the black hole, like bees around a hive. Based on their speeds, the invisible central mass can be calculated using straightforward Newtonian laws of physics.

Tracking the stars is meticulous work that’s cut out for the Hubble Space Telescope’s sharp resolution and longevity. Astronomers looking through over a decade of Hubble observations of the nearby globular star cluster Messier 4 calculated there is a very dense central object of about 800 solar masses. It is so compact, the observations tend to rule out alternative theories as to what’s happening in the heart of the cluster.

이것은 구상 성단 M4의 중심에 있는 것으로 의심되는 블랙홀 주위의 별들의 움직임을 시뮬레이션한 것입니다. 그것은 성단의 내부 동역학을 포함하는 “구형 성단의 HST 유산 조사: 인구 및 구성에 대한 자외선 스포트라이트”를 기반으로 합니다. M4를 확대하면 블랙홀로 추정되는 질량 중심이 빨간색 “X”로 표시됩니다. 빨간색 원의 반지름은 1 바로 아래입니다.[{” attribute=””>light-year across. It is the sphere of influence of the putative intermediate-mass black hole. Estimated to be 800 solar masses, the black hole has an event horizon that is a little more than half the diameter of our moon. The sphere of influence of the black hole is the region where its gravitational potential dominates over the gravitational potential of the starfield. It is a region where stellar motions are significantly affected by the black hole’s gravitational pull. Only Hubble’s sharp resolution can plot this motion over more than a decade of observing. The fastest moving stars in this video are not in the cluster, but are much closer to us, in the foreground of Milky Way stars. Credit: NASA, ESA, Mattia Libralato (AURA/STScI for ESA)

Hubble Space Telescope Hunts for Intermediate-Sized Black Hole Close to Home

Astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have come up with what they say is some of their best evidence yet for the presence of a rare class of “intermediate-sized” black hole that may be lurking in the heart of the closest globular star cluster to Earth, located 6,000 light-years away.

Like intense gravitational potholes in the fabric of space, virtually all black holes seem to come in two sizes: small and humongous. It’s estimated that our galaxy is littered with 100 million small black holes (several times the mass of our Sun) created from exploded stars. The universe at large is flooded with supermassive black holes, weighing millions or billions of times our Sun’s mass and found in the centers of galaxies.

A long-sought missing link is an intermediate-mass black hole, weighing in somewhere between 100 and 100,000 solar masses. How would they form, where would they hang out, and why do they seem to be so rare?

Astronomers have identified other possible intermediate-mass black holes through a variety of observational techniques. Two of the best candidates — 3XMM J215022.4−055108, which Hubble helped discover in 2020, and HLX-1, identified in 2009, reside in dense star clusters in the outskirts of other galaxies. Each of these possible black holes has the mass of tens of thousands of suns, and may have once been at the centers of dwarf galaxies. NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory has also helped make many possible intermediate black hole discoveries, including a large sample in 2018.

Looking much closer to home, there have been a number of suspected intermediate-mass black holes detected in dense globular star clusters orbiting our Milky Way galaxy. For example, in 2008, Hubble astronomers announced the suspected presence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. For a number of reasons, including the need for more data, these and other intermediate-mass black hole findings still remain inconclusive and do not rule out alternative theories.

Hubble’s unique capabilities have now been used to zero in on the core of the globular star cluster Messier 4 (M4) to go black-hole hunting with higher precision than in previous searches. “You can’t do this kind of science without Hubble,” said Eduardo Vitral of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, lead author on a paper published today (May 23, 2023) in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Vitral’s team has detected a possible intermediate-mass black hole of roughly 800 solar masses. The suspected object can’t be seen, but its mass is calculated by studying the motion of stars caught in its gravitational field, like bees swarming around a hive. Measuring their motion takes time, and a lot of precision. This is where Hubble accomplishes what no other present-day telescope can do. Astronomers looked at 12 years’ worth of M4 observations from Hubble and resolved pinpoint stars.

His team estimates that the black hole in M4 could be as much as 800 times our Sun’s mass. Hubble’s data tend to rule out alternative theories for this object, such as a compact central cluster of unresolved stellar remnants like neutron stars, or smaller black holes swirling around each other. 

“We have good confidence that we have a very tiny region with a lot of concentrated mass. It’s about three times smaller than the densest dark mass that we had found before in other globular clusters,” said Vitral. “The region is more compact than what we can reproduce with numerical simulations when we take into account a collection of black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs segregated at the cluster’s center. They are not able to form such a compact concentration of mass.”  

A grouping of close-knit objects would be dynamically unstable. If the object isn’t a single intermediate-mass black hole, it would require an estimated 40 smaller black holes crammed into a space only one-tenth of a light-year across to produce the observed stellar motions. The consequences are that they would merge and/or be ejected in a game of interstellar pinball.  

“We measure the motions of stars and their positions, and we apply physical models that try to reproduce these motions. We end up with a measurement of a dark mass extension in the cluster’s center,” said Vitral. “The closer to the central mass, more randomly the stars are moving. And, the greater the central mass, the faster these stellar velocities.”

Because intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters have been so elusive, Vitral cautions, “While we cannot completely affirm that it is a central point of gravity, we can show that it is very small. It’s too tiny for us to be able to explain other than it being a single black hole. Alternatively, there might be a stellar mechanism we simply don’t know about, at least within current physics.”

Reference: “An elusive dark central mass in the globular cluster M4” by Eduardo Vitral, Mattia Libralato, Kyle Kremer, Gary A Mamon, Andrea Bellini, Luigi R Bedin and Jay Anderson, 23 May 2023, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stad1068

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble and Webb science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, in Washington, D.C.

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